Infinite universe


Giordano Bruno (1584)

"This space we declare to be infinite, since neither reason, convenience, possibility, sense-perception nor nature assign to it a limit. In it are an infinity of worlds of the same kind as our own."
Andrei Linde

Andrei Linde (1986)

Eternally Existing Self-Reproducing Chaotic Inflationary Universe

Paul Steinhardt & Neil Turok (2001)

Cosmic Evolution in a Cyclic Universe

Wun-Yi Shu (2010)

Model describes universe with no big bang, no beginning, and no end

Cosmological Models with No Big Bang

Multiverse theories

Existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life

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Giordano Bruno (1584)

"Innumerable suns exist; innumerable earths revolve around these suns... Living beings inhabit these worlds."

Arthur C. Clarke (1996)

“I'm sure the universe is full of intelligent life. It's just been too intelligent to come here."

Steven Hawking (2010)

"To my mathematical brain, the numbers alone make thinking about aliens perfectly rational."
Michio Kaku

Michio Kaku (2013)

"They're definitely aliens in outer space."

Extraterrestrial origin of life

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Svante Arrhenius (1903)

Panspermia as a scientific hypothesis
Carl Sagan

Iosif Shklovskii & Carl Sagan (1966)

Directed panspermia

Francis Crick & Leslie Orgel (1973)

Directed panspermia

Fred Hoyle & Chandra Wickramasinghe (1986)

Viruses from space

Richard Dawkins (2008)

Richard Dawkins
"It could be that at some earlier time somewhere in the universe a civilization evolved by probably some kind of Darwinian means to a very, very high level of technology and designed a form of life that they seeded onto perhaps this planet. Now, that is a possibility and an intriguing possibility."
Faster-than-light travel

Faster Than Light

Kip Thorne & Mike Morris (1988)

Wormholes in spacetime and their use for interstellar travel: A tool for teaching general relativity

WormholeLorentzian traversable wormholes would allow travel in both directions from one part of the universe to another part of that same universe very quickly or would allow travel from one universe to another. While traveling through a wormhole, subluminal speeds are used. If two points are connected by a wormhole, the time taken to traverse it would be less than the time it would take a light beam to make the journey if it took a path through the space outside the wormhole.

Miguel Alcubierre (1994)

The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity

The Alcubierre drive is a theoretical means of traveling faster than light that does not violate the physical principle that nothing can locally travel faster than light. Alcubierre constructed a model that might transport a volume of flat space inside a "bubble" of curved space. Warp Drive StarshipThis bubble, named as Hyper-relativistic local-dynamic space, is driven forward by a local expansion of space-time behind it, and an opposite contraction in front of it, so that theoretically a spaceship would be placed in motion by forces generated in the change made by space-time.

Krasnikov Serguei
Serguei Krasnikov (1995)

Hyperfast Interstellar Travel in General Relativity

A Krasnikov tube is a speculative mechanism for space travel involving the warping of spacetime into permanent superluminal tunnels. The resulting structure is analogous to a wormhole with the endpoints displaced in time as well as space.

Michio Kaku (2009)

"We may be able to teleport life forms."

Life extension


Ray Kurzweil (2005)

"We have the means right now to live long enough to live forever. Existing knowledge can be aggressively applied to dramatically slow down aging processes so we can still be in vital health when the more radical life extending therapies from biotechnology and nanotechnology become available."

Aubrey De Grey
Aubrey de Grey

2005: Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS)

2007: Ending Aging

2008: "The first human who will live up to 1,000 years is probably already alive now."

2009: SENS Research Foundation

The 2045 Initiative (2011)

Life extension and spiritual enlightenment by means of high science and cybernetic technologies

Mind uploading

Mind Upload

Anders Sandberg & Nick Bostrom (2008)

Whole Brain Emulation - A Roadmap

Randal Koene

1999: The Society of Neural Prosthetics and Whole Brain Emulation Science

2010: non-profit organisation with a goal of advancing the reverse engineering of neural tissue and complete brains, Whole Brain Emulation and development of neuroprostheses that reproduce functions of mind, creating Substrate-Independent Minds (SIM).

2012: GF2045 talk - The engineering challenge to make minds substrate-independent via whole brain emulation within our lifetimes

Intelligent life in subatomic particles


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Hugo de Garis (2011)

Search for Infra Particle Intelligence

Changing the “Search for Non Human Intelligence” Paradigm from Outer Space to Inner Space.

Are Super-Intelligent Aliens Hiding Within Our Atoms?